Variable expenses are those expenses that track directly with sales. If sales stop they stop. These are expenses like supplies used to support in the making of your product or doing your service. Such things as shipping cost for raw materials for your product or service. If you have no sales then you're not going to be purchasing materials so your shipping cost for those materials will stop as well. As an example, if you have a lawn mowing business and there are no lawns to mow, then you wouldn't be buying gasoline to travel to your lawn mowing site. These kinds of things are variable expenses. If you're producing a product, it would include supplies used to produce that product like sand paper, glue, finishing materials, cutting tools, etc.
It is a fact of life that any new business or enterprise has a degree of risk attached to it. Therefore it is important for your business plan to analyse and calculate that risk, showing how you will engage with it. There is no business plan out there that is risk_free, but very often where the risk is higher then the rewards will be as well.